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Multi-Hazard Vulnerability


India, due to its, physiographic and climatic conditions is one of the most disaster prone areas of the world. Vulnerability to disasters/emergencies of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) origin also exists. Heightened vulnerabilities to disaster risks can be related to increasing population, urbanisation, industrialisation, development within high-risk zones, environmental degradation, and climate change. The DM Act of 2005 and DM Policy of 2009 consider disasters to be natural or human-induced for defining the roles and responsibilities. The human-induced category includes CBRN disasters. Besides, with the natural factors discussed earlier, various human induced activities are also responsible for accelerated impact and increase in frequency of disasters in the country. The NDMP covers disaster management cycle for all types of hazards faced in India – both natural and human-induced.

Reducing Risk; Enhancing Resilience .The role of the central agencies is to support the disaster-affected State or the UT in response to requests for assistance. However, the central agencies will play a pro-active role in disaster situations. In the domains of DM planning, preparedness, and capacity building, the central agencies will constantly work to upgrade Indian DM systems and practices as per global trends. The planning framework has arranged the actions envisaged for risk reduction under five thematic areas for action with one of the four priorities for action of Sendai Framework as its dominant feature. For each hazard, the approach used in this national plan incorporates the four priorities enunciated in the Sendai Framework into the planning framework for Disaster Risk Reduction under the five Thematic Areas for Action:

1. Understanding Risk

2. Inter-Agency Coordination

3. Investing in DRR – Structural Measures

4. Investing in DRR – Non-Structural Measures

5. Capacity Development

For each thematic area for action, the NDMP has identified a set of major themes for undertaking actions within the broad planning framework. For each hazard, themes for action are presented in a separate responsibility matrix assigning roles of centre and state for each of the thematic areas for action. The activities envisaged in the NDMP and the Sendai Framework fall into short/ immediate (within 5 years), medium (within 10 years), and long-term (within 15 years) categories, which will be implemented in many instances concurrently, and not necessarily sequentially. For both implementation and the realization of outcomes, they correspond to widely differing scope in terms of geographic spread, institutional complexity, and time scales. Some of the actions under immediate response are short-lived, while many of the measures for risk reduction and strengthening resilience are long term, which become part of all facets of developmental process through mainstreaming.

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